Zeno of Elea (ca. 490 – 420 BC) is known as Greek philosopher, who’s paradoxes have troubled also modern thinkers for a long time.

Zeno aimed at to show contradiction between plurality, motion and infinity with his paradoxes.

Motion is impossible, because whatever moves must reach the middle of its course before it reaches the end; but before it must have reached the quarter-mark, and so on, infinitely. Hence the motion can never even start.

So there are infinite number of sub-courses to go, before the end has been reached.

It was because of lacking concept of (mathematical) limit, these paradoxes saw the daylight. Arbitrary small changes couldn’t be explained. Though, there are views, that even modern calculus doesn’t explain completely Zeno’s paradoxes! So is the motion still an illusion? 🙂


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Isaac Newton founded differential and integral calculus in the 17th century.